Diving Christmas Island
Located in the eastern Indian Ocean, the region including Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands is a marine suture zone between Indian and Pacific Ocean. Latest research on The Indo-Pacific biogeographic border bring to the conclusion that Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands have by far the most reported hybrid marine fishes of any location reported to date. Hybridisation frequently occurs between Indian and Pacific Ocean sister species and in most cases where one o both parent species is rare. (Gerald R Allen & Jean-Paul Adrian Hobbs - Dec 2014). So divers, do you have your uw cameras ready?
Here are some amazing facts about Christmas Island
The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around 350 km (220 mi) south of Java and Sumatra and around 1,550 km (960 mi) north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of 135 square km (52 sq mi).
Christmas Island has a population of just over 2,000 residents, the majority of whom live in settlements on the northern tip of the island. The main settlement is Flying Fish Cove. Around two-thirds of the island's population is Malaysian Chinese, with significant numbers of Malays and Australians as well as smaller numbers of Malaysian Indians and Eurasians. Several languages are in use, including English, Malay, and various Chinese dialects, while Buddhism is the primary religion, practiced by three-quarters of the population. The first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615. The island was later named on Christmas Day (25 December) 1643 by Captain William Mynors, but only settled in the late 19th century. Its geographic isolation and history of minimal human disturbance has led to a high level of endemism between its flora and fauna, which is of interest to scientists and naturalists. The majority of the island (63%) is included in the Christmas Island National Park, which features several areas of primary monsoonal forest. Phosphate, deposited originally as guano, has been mined on the island since 1899.
Christmas Island is the summit of a submarine mountain, rising steeply to a central plateau dominated by stands of rainforest. This plateau reaches heights of up to 361 meters and consists mainly of limestone and layers of volcanic rock. The island's 80 km coastline is an almost continuous sea cliff, of up to 20 meters in height. In a few places, the cliff gives way to shallow bays with small sand and coral shingle beaches. The largest of these bays forms the island's only port: Flying Fish Cove.
Christmas Island experiences a tropical equatorial climate with wet and dry seasons. The wet season is from December to April when the island comes under the influence of the north-west monsoons. During the rest of the year, the south-east trade winds bring slightly lower temperatures and humidity with much less rain. The mean annual rainfall is 1,930 mm. Most of this rain falls between November and May. February and March are usually the wettest months. Because of the oceanic influence, the relative humidity does not vary seasonally as much as rainfall. Humidity usually ranges between 80 - 90%. Temperatures on the island vary little from month to month. The average daily maximum temperature reaches a high of 28° Celsius in April and the average daily minimum temperature falls to 22° Celsius in August.
Christmas Island, a remote and exotic island with great diving
Christmas Island is surrounded by a narrow tropical reef, which plunges into a bottomless abyss. This makes Christmas Island the perfect destination for scuba diving trips! This reef is laced with many unspoiled corals and abundant species of marine life. The northern coast in particular boasts some of the most unspoiled corals in the world such as Acropora and plate corals which play host to a wide variety of small tropical species such as surgeon fish, wrasse, butterfly fish, gobies, anemones, eels and many others which are a photographers delight. You may also be paid a visit by one of the larger locals on your scuba diving trip: the whale shark, oceanic mantas and sea turtles. Pelagics like rainbow runner, trevally and tuna cruise along the walls and the occasional shark comes up for a curious look. You could be graced with the presence of the majestic whale shark, an encounter with one of these gentle giants who often visit any time between November and April, during the red crab migration, is an experience on your scuba diving trip that you don't want to miss!
The Red Crab Migration
At the beginning of the wet season (usually October - November), most adult Red Crabs suddenly begin a spectacular migration from the forest to the coast, to breed and release eggs into the sea. Breeding is usually synchronised island wide. The rains provide moist overcast conditions for crabs to make their long and difficult journey to the sea. The timing of the migration breeding sequence is also linked to the phases of the moon, so that eggs may be released by the female Red Crabs into the sea precisely at the turn of the high tide during the last quarter of the moon.
It is thought that this occurs at this time because there is the least difference between high and low tides. The sea level at the base of the cliffs and on the beaches, where the females release their eggs, at this time varies the least for a longer period, and it is therefore safer for the females approaching the water's edge to release their eggs. Sometimes there are earlier and later migrations of smaller numbers of crabs but all migrations retain this same lunar rhythm.
Possible Spawning dates for 2018 & 2019
- 4-5 November 2018
- 4-5 December 2018
- 2-3 January 2019
Christmas Island useful information
How to get there
- By Air. A few airlines fly to Christmas Island, including Virgin Australia from Perth and Garuda from Jakarta
- By Private Charter Boat (Liveaboards), generally from Indonesia. There are currently no scheduled cruise trip for Christmas Island. We will keep this page updated if cruise trip visits are announced.
- By Private Visiting Yachts.The Port of Christmas Island and the community welcomes visiting yachts to call at Flying Fish Cove.
When to go
- From May to November, during the dry season.
- The red crab migration starts can occur at the beginning of the wet season, in November, December, depending on the whims of nature. December to April is the wet season and can be subject to monsoons.
What to do
- Witness the amazing red crab migration.
- Laze on deserted beaches.
- Snorkel or dive in the Christmas Island Marine Park.
- For the most adventurous hiking it is a must: 63% percent of Christmas Island territory is national park.
What you need to know
- English is the official language for the 1500-plus residents, but 70 percent of the residents are Chinese, followed by Australians, Europeans, and Malay.
- It’s very hot and humid so make sure to drink plenty of water.
- Phosphate mining is the main source of revenue for the island.
- Book flights ahead because Christmas Island will book up during school holidays in Australia.
- Check if you need a Visa on the official page of IMMIGRATION HOME AFFAIRS AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT
- Reserve accommodation in advance.
- There is a medical center and a post office.
Keywords: wall diving, cave diving, indian ocean, south pacific, south sea, java trench, australia, christmas island, red crab migration, whale shark, oceanic manta, sea turtles, hybridisation, reef fishes
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